NOTES TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE PERIOD ENDED 31 JULY 2019
2.Accounting policies (continued)
The tax expense for the period comprises current and deferred tax. Tax is recognised in the Statement of Income and Retained Earnings, except that a charge attributable to an item of income and expense recognised as other comprehensive income or to an item recognised directly in equity is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.
The current income tax charge is calculated on the basis of tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date in the countries where the company operates and generates income.
Deferred tax balances are recognised in respect of all timing differences that have originated but not reversed by the Statement of Financial Position date, except that:
∙The recognition of deferred tax assets is limited to the extent that it is probable that they will be recovered against the reversal of deferred tax liabilities or other future taxable profits; and
∙Any deferred tax balances are reversed if and when all conditions for retaining associated tax allowances have been met.
Deferred tax balances are not recognised in respect of permanent differences except in respect of business combinations, when deferred tax is recognised on the differences between the fair values of assets acquired and the future tax deductions available for them and the differences between the fair values of liabilities acquired and the amount that will be assessed for tax. Deferred tax is determined using tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.
Tangible fixed assets under the cost model are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
Depreciation is charged so as to allocate the cost of assets less their residual value over their estimated useful lives, as follows.
Depreciation is provided on the following basis:
The assets' residual values, useful lives and depreciation methods are reviewed, and adjusted prospectively if appropriate, or if there is an indication of a significant change since the last reporting date.
Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing the proceeds with the carrying amount and are recognised in the Statement of Income and Retained Earnings.
Stocks are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value, being the estimated selling price less costs to complete and sell. Cost is based on the cost of purchase on a first in, first outbasis. Work in progress and finished goods include labour and attributable overheads.
At each reporting date, stocks are assessed for impairment. If stock is impaired, the carrying amount is reduced to its selling price less costs to complete and sell. The impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.